The HDSS is situated approximately 40 km north-east of Polokwane, the headquarters of Limpopo Province, and slightly closer to the University of Limpopo Turfloop campus. The DHDSS is located on a high plateau area (approximately 1250 m above sea level) where communities typically consist of households clustered in villages, with access to local land for small-scale food production. In the early stages of the DHDSS, measurements were limited to life events, background factors and various small-scale sampled studies relating to specific biomedical outcomes. Since the expansion of the DHDSS, there are new possibilities for fully fledged HDSS operations. This includes the attribution of cause of death, by carrying out verbal autopsies using WHO standards and interpreted using the InterVA model,5 as well as increased scope for comparative studies involving the Agincourt and Africa Centre HDSS sites.